Miter Bend (Closely-spaced)

Closely spaced miter bends should satisfy the requirements of

ASME B31.1 code:

Other ASME B31 code:

If or the widely-spaced miter joints should be modeled using single miter joint.

A welded miter joint is made up of several miters and half-miters. Number of joints (with an axis direction change) is taken into account for intensification and flexibility factor analyses. Figure 1 shows a model with 3 joints. Skew angle is given for reference.

Central bend angle should not exceed 90 degrees (More...).

Fig. 1

START-PROF perform the Wall thickness check for Miter Bend according to selected code.






Element name. If checked then it shown in 3D view

Qualified Bend

If option is checked the mpsb=1 otherwise mpsb=1.3 is used

Radius, R

Bend average radius  (0.5D<R<10D). Long - 1.5DN, short - 1.0DN

Get properties from matching pipe

Get properties from matching pipe

Calculate weight automatically

If selected, reducer weight is calculated automatically as frustum volume with wall thickness equal to that of adjoining pipes


Bend weight (with flanges) without insulation and product. Set according to standards without taking into account the overload factor. Product and insulation weight with corresponding overload factors are calculated automatically based on adjoining pipes.

Calculate angle automatically

The bend angle used in bend's flexibility factor (k-factor) calculation in some codes. The option "сalculate angle automatically" should be turned on by default.

It is recommended to turn off this option when the bend was splitted into several parts to model the support on bend. In this case the angle should be specified for full bend, not for each part of bend



Material from materials database

Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factor, E

Longitudinal weld joint efficiency factor, E. More...

Manufacturing technology

For ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, DL/T 5366-2014 seamless pipe will always use Wl=1.0. For electric-welded pipe Wl will be specified from database. More...

When using  GOST 32388-2013, pipe physical properties are taken from different materials databases depending on pipe type (seamless/welded).

Presence of flanges

Number of flanges must be selected. Flanges are rigid elements and prevent cross-section ovalization. Flanges affect the flexibility factor and stress intensification factor.

  • none - no flanges, elbow is welded to pipes

  • one flange - one end is connected with a flange, while the other end is welded

  • two flanges - both ends are connected with flanges

Number of miters

Number of miters, see fig. 1

Skew angle

Skew angle for each miter, see fig. 1

Mill tolerance

Mill tolerance at the time of production. More...

Corrosion and wear allowance

Corrosion and wear allowance (working mill tolerance) for wall thickness. More...

Nominal wall thickness, S

Nominal (actual) wall thickness

Stress correlation along two axes, r

Based on ISO 14692 section 7.10

Qualified stress, qs

If this field is blank then qs is got from material database

Based on ISO 14692 section 7.8

Internal protective layer thickness

- internal (non-reinforced) protective layer thickness. More...

External protective layer thickness

- external (non-reinforced) protective layer thickness. More...

Toolbar Access

To insert an elbow, select the desired node and use the menu option: Insert > Insert Bend > Miter Bend (Closely-spaced)

To view properties of an existing element: