Welding Elbow

fig. 1

I-I - in-plane welds, II-II - out-of-plane welds

This bend is produced from 2 parts and have a longitudinal weld. There's no difference in stress analysis of Forged elbow, Induction bend and Welding elbow in ASME and EN codes.

Central bend angle should not exceed 90 degrees (More...). START-PROF doesn't check the Wall thickness for this type of bend according to ASME code, but check it according to Russian codes.






Element name. If checked then it shown in 3D view

Radius, R

Elbow average radius  (0.5D<R<10D). Long - 1.5DN, short - 1.0DN

Get properties from matching pipe

Get properties from matching pipe

Calculate weight automatically

If selected, elbow weight is calculated automatically as torus sector volume with wall thickness equal to that of adjoining pipes


Elbow weight (with flanges) without insulation and product. Set according to standards without taking into account the overload factor. Product and insulation weight with corresponding overload factors are calculated automatically based on adjoining pipes.

If "Calculate weight automatically" is selected, elbow weight is taken as torus sectors with given wall thickness.

Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factor, E

Longitudinal weld joint efficiency factor, E. More...

Manufacturing technology

For ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, DL/T 5366-2014 seamless pipe will always use Wl=1.0. For electric-welded pipe Wl will be specified from database. More...

When using  GOST 32388-2013, pipe physical properties are taken from different materials databases depending on pipe type (seamless/welded).

Calculate angle automatically

The bend angle used in bend's flexibility factor (k-factor) calculation in some codes. The option "сalculate angle automatically" should be turned on by default.

It is recommended to turn off this option when the bend was splitted into several parts to model the support on bend. In this case the angle should be specified for full bend, not for each part of bend



Material from materials database

Presence of flanges

Number of flanges must be selected. Flanges are rigid elements and prevent cross-section ovalization. Flanges affect the flexibility factor and stress intensification factor.

  • none - no flanges, elbow is welded to pipes

  • one flange - one end is connected with a flange, while the other end is welded

  • two flanges - both ends are connected with flanges

Nominal wall thickness, S

Nominal (actual) wall thickness

Mill tolerance, С1

Mill tolerance at the time of production. More...
When analyzing based on RD 10-249-98 (section, 3 mill tolerance values must be input (С1=С11+С12): external, neutral and internal bend section, with a difference equal to the value of С12. More...

Corrosion and wear allowance, С2

Corrosion and wear allowance (working mill tolerance) for wall thickness. More...

Ovalization factor a, %

Initial ovalization factor. More...

Toolbar Access

To insert an elbow, select the desired node and use the menu option: Insert > Insert Bend > Welding Elbow

To view properties of an existing element: