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Turbine NEMA SM 23/API 611/API 612/ISO 10437

This element allows to model the turbine and check the loads according to NEMA SM 23 /API 611 / API 612 / ISO 10437 standards. One "turbine" object can be connected to 2-4 nodes. Allowable loads are checked for each individual nozzle and for whole turbine. Analysis results can be found in Loads on Nozzles and Equipment Table. See also "How to Reduce the Nozzle Loads in START-PROF"

There can be two options of using turbine element:

1. Put turbine nozzles into the pipe end nodes. In this case, the turbine nozzles are automatically modeled as a fixed anchors. Turbine temperature expansions are automatically modeled as anchor movements.

2. Put turbine nozzles into intermediate nodes. In this case user should create the turbine model using rigid elements, cylindrical shells, and other elements. Temperature expansion are modeled as temperature expansions of elements, that model the turbine (rigid elements, pipes etc.)

Properties

 

Property

Description

Name

Element name. If checked then it shown in 3D view

Auto calculation of nozzle temperature movements

Automatically calculate the nozzle movements as DX*Alpha*(T-Ta), DY*Alpha*(T-Ta), DZ*Alpha*(T-Ta), where Alpha is thermal expansion factor (taken from selected material properties), T is equipment temperature, Ta is ambient temperature, DX, DY, DZ are distances from turbine center. If checkbox is not checked, then nozzle movements can be specified manually

Material

Material from materials database

Manufacturing technology

For ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, DL/T 5366-2014 seamless pipe will always use Wl=1.0. For electric-welded pipe Wl will be specified from database. More...

When using  GOST 32388-2013, pipe physical properties are taken from different materials databases depending on pipe type (seamless/welded).

Temperature

Turbine Temperature. More...

This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Factor for Allowable Loads

The default value is 1.0. Allowable values are 0.5-20.0. You can change this value according to turbine manufacturer instructions. The allowable loads De and Dc will be multiplied by this value.

Shaft Axis Orientation

Shaft X-axis direction according to following drawings:

Turbine Center Point Offsets

The node, and offsets from this node to the turbine centre (point 3 on the drawings above)

Remove restraints for hanger selection

If this option is activated, then some restraints are removed from nozzle element during weight run of variable and constant spring selection. During main analysis restraints are working. This trick allows to remove the weight part of loading from the nozzle element. Springs will take the exact load, at which displacements from pure weight load is zero. Options:

  • Remove vertical restraint. Only vertical restraint will be released during hanger selection

  • Remove custom restraints. You should manually choose which restraints should be released during hanger selection

  • Remove all restraints. During hanger selection all direction restraints will be released

Suction Nozzle

Discharge Nozzle

Additional Nozzle 1

Additional Nozzle 2

Set the node number to which nozzles are connected to. If other side piping model is absent, you can specify the loads manually, just select "Set Custom Loads"

Check Allowable Loads for Turbine

According to API 617 standard the load on each nozzle of turbine shouldn't exceed

Sum of loads of whole turbine shouldn't exceed

Menu and Toolbar Access

To insert a turbine, select the desired nodes and use the menu option: Insert > Equipment > Turbine NEMA SM 23/API 611/API 612