Pipe Element

Related Topics

Tabs:

General Properties

To insert the pipe you must select the node that will be start node of the pipe element and then insert the pipe in that node. The end node will be created automatically if it was not specified. To insert the pipe between two existing nodes you must select these nodes and then insert the pipe element between them or specify the node numbers manually.

 

Property

Description

Name

Text field. Element can be sorted by name and selected in the project tree

Projections\sphere\cylinder1

Projections - element dimensions are input as projections on global coordinate axes DX, DY, DZ;
sphere - element dimensions are input as element length L and three angles between the element axis and the global coordinate axes jX, jY, jZ;
cylinder - element dimensions are input as a projection on the XY plane, projections on the Z axis and two angles between the projection on the XY plane and X and Y axes.
See note 1 below.

External diameter, D

External pipe diameter, D

Manufacturing technology

For ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, DL/T 5366-2014 seamless pipe will always use Wl=1.0. For electric-welded pipe Wl will be specified from database. More...

When using  GOST 32388-2013, pipe physical properties are taken from different materials databases depending on pipe type (seamless/welded).

Material

Material from materials database

Nominal wall thickness, S

Nominal (actual) wall thickness

Mill tolerance

Mill tolerance at the time of production. More...

Liner thickness, tL

Thickness of the liner (internal protective layer) for FRP piping. Liner and Topcoat thickness are used to calculate reinforced wall thickness tr=t-tL-tc and mean diameter Dr=D-2*tc-tr

Topcoat thickness, tc

Thickness of the topcoat (external protective layer) for FRP piping

Corrosion and wear allowance

Corrosion and wear allowance (working mill tolerance) for wall thickness. More...

Pressure, P

Design pressure set for all standards except SNIP 2.05.06-85 and SP 36.13330.2012.

Operation pressure set when analyzing with SNIP 2.05.06-85 and SP 36.13330.2012.

This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Temperature, Тop

Design temperature in operating mode. More...

This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Thermal Gradient

Thermal gradient is the temperature difference between the bottom and the top of the pipe dT=Ttop-Tbottom. Used to model thermal bowing effect on horizontal pipes. More...

To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Installation pressure, Passembly

Pressure in installation state. See "wall thickness analysis"

Automatic pipe weight calculation

Pipe weight is automatically calculated as

Material density is taken from the materials database

Uniform pipe weight

Uniform pipe and adjoining structure weight. More...

Uniform insulation weight

Uniform insulation weight. More...

This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Insulation Thickness, ti

Insulation Density

Cladding Thickness, tc

Cladding Density

Lining Thickness, tl

Lining Density

1 - pipe, 2 - insulation, 3-cladding, 4 - lining, t - pipe wall thickness, ti - insulation thickness, tc - cladding thickness, tl - lining thickness

Uniform product weight / product density

Uniform product weight or product density. More...

This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button

Note 1: element dimensions in space can be input in three ways:

   

Additional Properties

 

Property

Description

Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factor, E

Longitudinal weld joint efficiency factor, E. More...

Coefficient y

For B31.3 code, the coefficient depending on temperature and steel type

Design Factor, F

For ASME B31.8 Onshore:

For ASME B31.12PL:

Design Factor, a

For BS PD 8010 Onshore:

Location Factor, L

For CSA Z662: Table 4.2

Basic Design Factor, FA, FB

For CSA Z662: Table 11.1

Steel Performance Factor, Mf

Steel Performance Factor, Hf

ASME B31.12:

High Pressure

If this option is checked, then used Chapter IX requirements of ASME B31.3

Pipeline Location

If checked Offshore Pipeline, then used Chapter IX requirements of ASME B31.4 or Chapter VIII requirements of ASME B31.8

If checked Slurry Pipes, then used Chapter XI requirements of ASME B31.4

Pipeline Type

Restrained Pipeline - for this pipe will be used code requirements as for restrained pipe. See details here.

Unrestrained Pipeline - for this pipe will be used code requirements as for unrestrained pipe. See details here.

Riser or Platform for Inland Waterways or Platform Piping - for this pipe will be used code requirements as for Riser

If you don't want to specify manually restrained and unrestrained pipes, just select Autodetect or START Smart Check options in Project Settings. See details here.

Creep diminish factor2,

Compensation stress averaging factor. Input only for high-temperature pipelines according to RD 10-249-98 section 5.2.3.6, GOST 32388-2013 section 7.1.7. Input 0 for low-temperature pipelines. Can be calculated automatically by clicking (see note 2 below).

Creep self-springing factor2,

Compensation stress relaxation factor. Input only for high-temperature pipelines according to RD 10-249-98  section 5.2.3.7, GOST 32388-2013 section 7.1.7. Input 0 for low-temperature pipelines. Can be calculated automatically by clicking (see note 2 below).

Pipeline category

Pipeline category according to SNIP 2.05.06-85 table 1: B, I, II, III, IV. Used for calculating the operation condition factor m

Product

Product: gas, oil, oil products. Used for calculating the safety factor based on pipeline function using SNIP 2.05.06-85

Safety factor K1

Safety factor for material K1 according to SNIP 2.05.06-85 table 9

Safety factor K2

Safety factor for material K2 according to SNIP 2.05.06-85 table 10

Safety factor based on load n  for internal pressure

Safety factor based on load n  for internal pressure according to SNIP 2.05.06-85 table 13

Safety factor, Ky

Used for plastic piping (HDPE piping). Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. In absence of the data the table below may be used. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

Chemical resistance factor, A2

Used for FRP/GRP/GRE piping. In case of non-aggressive product the factor is 1.0

Chemical resistance factor, Kx

Used for plastic piping (HDPE piping). In case of non-aggressive product the factor is 1.0. The factor should be provided by pipe manufacturer. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

Laying condition factor, Kp

Used for plastic piping. The decision can be made by stress analyst

  • 0.8 for buried piping (underground piping)

  • 0.9 for underground piping in concrete channels (access for repair)

  • 1.0 for above ground piping

Temperature range factor, k

Used for plastic and fiberglass piping. The temperature range is multiplied by this factor. It consider the nonlinear distribution of temperature across the wall thickness. For thermoplastic piping recommended value is 1.0 and for fiberglass piping 0.85 for fluid and 0.8 for gas if no other information available. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

Swelling strain, e3

Used for plastic piping. Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

Strength factor of joint, Кс

Used for plastic piping. Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. In absence of the data the table below may be used. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

Safety Factor gm

Used in EN13941:

Project Class

Used in EN 13941: Class A, B, C can be specified manually. Or you can choose Auto option. It will determine the class automatically based on following graph:

rg - average pipe radius

Pipeline Type

Used in EN 13941. The lowest number of equivalent full action cycles is determined depending on pipeline type (character of pipeline).

The lowest number of cycles values should be specified in Project Settings:

Additional weight load

Additional uniform weight load. Must be manually multiplied by the overload factor according to  standards. This load is applied in all operating modes.

Additional weight loads are used to calculate mass for dynamic (seismic) analysis

Additional non-weight load

Additional uniform non-weight load. Input for all three global coordinate axes projections. Must be manually multiplied by the overload factor according to  standards. This load is applied in all operating modes.

Additional non-weight loads are not used to calculate mass for dynamic (seismic) analysis

Note 2: In START-PROF, low- and high-temperature pipelines different in and factor values, input in input data. If the factors are 0, the piping is low-temperature. Otherwise, the piping is considered high-temperature, regardless of the actual heating temperature and steel brand.

If the piping is mixed, i.e. consisting both low- and high-temperature elements, temperature difference at each element is set as either low- or high-temperature, while the overall piping stress analysis is done as for a high-temperature piping.

and factors can be calculated automatically by clicking . If the piping material is included in one of the standards RD 10-249-98, GOST 32388-2013, the factor calculation is instant. If it is absent, a dialog window will be displayed, where steel with corresponding averaging and relaxing factors must be selected.

For more information, see Loads and effects combination, high- and low-temperature pipelines, pressure thrust force.

Seismic Properties

Piping placement

Piping placement selection

  • buried, underground in a case, on the ground, on low supports - acceleration as set as for above-ground laying

  • on a rack, on a shelf, inside a building (second floor or higher) - acceleration is multiplied by increasing factors Kh and Kv, taking into account structures on which the piping is placed

Factor taking into account piping function Ko

SP 14.13330.2018 table 3,  SNIP II-7-81* table 16, SP 36.13330.2012  table 15

Factors Kh, Kv

Increasing factors depending on structure height and type

Structure type

Factors Kh, Kv  depend on the stiffness and mass  of the structure on which the piping is placed

  • Massive reinforced concrete structure - high mass and high stiffness

  • Spatial rod structure, shelf - light and flexible structure

Soil deformation module above 10000 MPa

If the soil deformation module for the base of the structure on which the piping is placed is above 10000 MPa, an additional increasing factor of 1.5 is input

Peak ground velocity, Vg

If only peak ground acceleration values are available, the following table may be used (ASCE 2001):

Peak ground acceleration, Ag

If the soil deformation module for the base of the structure on which the piping is placed is above 10000 MPa, an additional increasing factor of 1.5 is input

Apparent P-Wave Propagation Velocity, Cp

Apparent S-Wave Propagation Velocity, Cs

Default values are Cp=2 km/s, Cs=2 km/s. Recommended wave velocity values are shown in the table

Data taken from "Методические рекомендации по определению динамических свойств грунтов, скальных пород и местных строительных материалов. П01-72. // ВНИИГ им. Б.Е. Веденеева, 1972 (Russian language)"

Wave speed for pipe stress analysis should be calculated using the following method, depending on soil layers thickness and wave speed values for each layer, see picture below.

Wind/Snow/Ice

Property

Description

Insulation Outer Diameter Insulation Outer Diameter. If 0 (zero) value specified, then pipe outer diameter is used by default
Start Node Elevation from Ground Elevation from the ground surface is used for calculation of wind and ice loads
End Node Elevation from Ground Elevation from the ground surface is used for calculation of wind and ice loads
Snow Shape Factor

If show shape factor is zero, then snow load will not be applied on this pipe element

  • ASCE 7-16 (USA),

Ca - Snow Shape Factor. Recommended value is 0.55

  • IBC 2012

Same as ASCE 7-16

  • EN 1991-1-3:2003+A1:2015 (European Union),

- snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.5

  • TKP EN 1991-1-3:2003+A1:2015 (Belarus),

Same as EN 1991-1-3:2003+A1:2015

  • GB 50009-2012 (China),

- snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4

  • SP 20.13330.2016 (Russia),

- snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4

  • NBC 2010 (Canada)

Ca - snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4

  • KBC 2016 (Korea),

Ca - Snow Shape Factor. Recommended value is 0.55

Thermal Coefficient
  • ASCE 7-16 (USA),

Ct - Thermal Coefficient

  • IBC 2012

Same as ASCE 7-16

  • EN 1991-1-3:2003+A1:2015 (European Union),

Ct - Thermal Coefficient

  • KBC 2016 (Korea),

Ct - Thermal Coefficient

Snow (and Rain) Load Calculated normative value of snow load. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code
Ice Shape Factor

If ice shape factor is zero, then ice load will not be applied on this pipe element

  • ASCE 7-16 (USA)

c - Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0

  • IBC 2012 (International)

Same as ASCE 7-16

  • GB 50135-2006 (China)

c - Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0

  • SP 20.13330.2016 (Russia)

c - Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0

Ice Load Calculated normative value of ice load. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code
Wind Shape Factor

If wind shape factor is zero, then wind load will not be applied on this pipe element

  • ASCE 7-16 (USA)

Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:

  • EN 1991-1-4:2005+A1:2010 (European Union)

Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.2

  • GB 50009-2012 (China)

– Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:

  • IS.875.3.1987 (India)

Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:

  • SP 20.13330.2016 (Russia)

c - Aerodynamic factor. Recommended value is 1.2

  • IBC 2012: Same as for ASCE 7-16

  • UBC 1997

Cq – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 0.8

  • AZ/NZS 1170.2:2011 (New Zeland)

Cfig - Wind shape factor. Recommended value - Auto

  • NBC 2010 (Canada)

Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value - Auto

  • NBR 06123-1988 (Brazil)

Ca – Wind shape factor. Recommended value - Auto

  • BS 6399-2 (Britain)

Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.2

  • TKP EN 1991-1-4 2009 (Belarus): Same as for EN 1991-1-4:2005+A1:2010

  • CNS (Taiwan)

Cf – Wind shape factor. Recommended value - Auto

  • KBC 2016 (Korea)

Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:

  • CFE 2008 (Mexico)

Ca – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:

  • Wind Pressure vs Elevation

c - Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.0

  • Wind Velocity vs Elevation

c – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.0

Correction factor
  • CFE 2008 (Mexico)

Kre – Wind correction factor 0.7-1.0

  • SP 20.13330.2016 (Russia)

v – Wind correction factor 0.38-0.95

Wind Direction Number
Wind Load
Calculated normative value of wind load for each wind direction and projections of this load on global axes. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code

 

Wall Thickness Check

START-PROF perform the Wall thickness check for all Pipe elements according to selected code.

Menu and Toolbar Access

To insert a flange, select the desired node and use the menu option: Insert > Insert Pipe

or press the toolbar icon.

To view properties of an existing element: