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Code Stress Report Table

The piping stress table gives results for the states required by the selected code.

Stress tables are different depending on the code selected in Project Settings and analysis mode:

You can see stresses only for specific operation mode or maximum stress from all operation modes. If you choose "Maximum' then for every table cell maximum stresses and corresponding allowable stresses are shown from operating mode with the greatest ratio of design stress divided by allowable stress.

Stress is calculated for straight pipes (at the start and end of each element), bends (at the start and end) and tees (in three cross-sections). See the "internal forces in piping elements" section. For a more accurate analysis, long buried sections (with the length of more than 150 times the diameter) should be divided by inserting intermediate nodes. It is also recommended to insert intermediate nodes in the middle of the gap between supports for above-ground pipelines, for a more accurate calculation of stress.

If option "Show Equations" is checked then if you put the mouse cursor over the table cell, popup message appears with all the equations used while calculating value in the table cell. You can use CTRL+C button combination to copy this text into clipboard.

If strength conditions are not met, the corresponding cell will be highlighted in red, and in the last table column an error code is displayed, the text of which can be read by hovering over it with the cursor (see fig. below). When printed, the error and warning messages can be found below the table. If strength conditions are met, the "notes" column remains empty.

Primary, Secondary Loads

Primary Loads. Primary loads are force driven: weight, pressure, spring, etc. Primary loads are not self-limiting. Once plastic deformation begins it continues unabated until force equilibrium is achieved. Excessive primary load causes gross plastic deformation and rupture. Failure may occur with a single application of the load.

Secondary Loads and Expansion stress. Secondary loads are displacement driven: thermal expansion, anchor movements, settlement, etc. Secondary loads are self-limiting, i.e. the loads tend to dissipate as the system deforms through yielding or deflection. Secondary loads are typically cyclic in nature (except settlement). Allowable limits for secondary stresses are based upon cyclic and fatigue failure modes, and are therefore limited based upon requirements for elastic cycling after shakedown and the material fatigue curve. A single application of the load never produces failure. Rather catastrophic failure can occur after some (usually high) number of applications of the load. Therefore, even if a system has been running successfully for many years, it is no evidence that the system has been properly designed for secondary loads.

ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.9

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance doesn't affect stresses in this code

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Property

Description

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

A - cross-section area, F - axial force, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

ASME B31.1 Sustained:

ASME B31.1 Occasional:

ASME B31.9 Sustained:

ASME B31.9 Occasional:

k - occasional k-factor

Sh - hot allowable stress from material database

Wc - Circumferential weld strength reduction factor from material database. Added if option "Use Wc factors" is turned on in Project Settings

E - Weld Joint Efficiency Factor

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

For ASME B31.1 buried piping additional check for straight pipes is done according to VII-4.5, VII-5:

Allowable stress range, Sa

ASME B31.1:

ASME B31.9:

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

For buried straight pipes allowable stress is:

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

The same as stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Creep stress from sustained and displacement loads in operating mode

Checked only if "Consider creep effect" in Project Settings is switched on

Calculated the same as Sl and Sl*. But the temperature difference is multiplied by "creep diminish factor" from pipe properties

Allowable stress

Sh - hot allowable stress

Creep stress from sustained and displacement loads in cold mode

Checked only if "Consider creep effect" in Project Settings is switched on

Calculated the same as Sl. But the temperature difference is multiplied by "creep self-springing factor" from pipe properties

Allowable stress

1.5Sc - cold allowable stress

 

ASME B31.3

Stresses calculation depends on options:

During sustained stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is reduced by corrosion allowance.

During sustained stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is not reduced.

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Property

Description

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Occasional stress:

A - cross-section area, F - axial force, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

There are 2 types of sustained stresses in the ASME B31.3 code: Sl_Alt, Sl_Std

Sl_Std - Sustained stress in cold state (W+P). The single-directional restraints and gap (working/not working) states are calculated. In most cases all resting supports are working in this state

Sl_Alt - Sustained stress in hot state (W+P). The single-directional restraints, gap (working/not working) configuration used the same as in operation state (W+P+T). Some resting supports may be switched off, because they are lifted off in hot state

If no supports are lift off in hot mode (W+P+T), then Sl_CLD and Sl_HOT are equal.

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sustained:

Occasional:

k - occasional k-factor

Sh - hot allowable stress from material database

Sy - Yield stress from material database

Wc - Circumferential weld strength reduction factor from material database. Added if option "Use Wc factors" is turned on in Project Settings

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

Allowable stress range, Sa

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

The same as stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Creep stress from sustained and displacement loads in operating mode

Checked only if "Consider creep effect" in Project Settings is switched on

Calculated the same as Sl. But the temperature difference is multiplied by "creep diminish factor" from pipe properties

Allowable stress

Sh - hot allowable stress

Creep stress from sustained and displacement loads in cold mode

Checked only if "Consider creep effect" in Project Settings is switched on

Calculated the same as Sl. But the temperature difference is multiplied by "creep self-springing factor" from pipe properties

Allowable stress

1.5Sc - cold allowable stress

 

Creep-Rupture Usage Factor, u

Creep-Rupture Usage Factor, u according to ASME B31.3-2018, V303.2

 

ASME B31.4

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Corrosion allowance doesn't affect stresses in this code

Sustained, Operation, Expansion, Test stresses:

Start smart check:

Stresses from occasional loads:

Start smart check from occasional loads:

 

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Property

Description

 

Hoop Stress

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline, Slurry Pipes (Ch. XI), Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

Restrained:

Not checked

Unrestrained:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Offshore (Ch. IX):

A - cross-section area, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Onshore Pipeline:

Occasional:

Slurry Pipes:

Occasional:

Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

Occasional:

Offshore (Ch. IX)

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress due to operation loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline, Slurry Pipes (Ch. XI):

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

Not checked

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Offshore (Ch. IX):

Same as for sustained loads

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Onshore Pipeline, Slurry Pipes (Ch. XI), Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Allowable stress range, Sa, Sa*

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

Onshore Pipeline:

Slurry Pipes:

Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

Offshore (Ch. IX)

Not checked

 

ASME B31.5

Stresses calculation depends on options:

During sustained stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is reduced by corrosion allowance.

During sustained stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is not reduced.

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Property

Description

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl, Sl*

If "add axial force and torsion stress" off (Sl):

Occasional:

If "add axial force and torsion stress" on (Sl*):

  

A - cross-section area, F - axial force, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sustained:

Occasional:

k - occasional k-factor

Sh - hot allowable stress from material database

E - Weld Joint Efficiency Factor

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se, Se*

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

If "add axial force and torsion stress" off (Se):

If "add axial force and torsion stress" on (Se*):

     

Allowable stress range, Sa, Sa*

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

 

ASME B31.8

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance doesn't affect stresses in this code for all types of pipelines except risers.

For risers during stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is reduced by corrosion allowance and mill tolerance.

Sustained, Operation, Expansion, Test stresses:

Start smart check:

Stresses from occasional loads:

Start smart check from occasional loads:

 

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Property

Description

 

Hoop Stress

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

Not checked

Unrestrained:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Offshore (Ch. VIII ):

A - cross-section area, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

Offshore (Ch. VIII)

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress due to operation loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

Not checked

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Offshore (Ch. VIII):

Same as for sustained loads

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

Not Checked

Unrestrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Offshore (Ch. VIII):

Not Checked

Allowable stress range, Sa, Sa*

 

Riser and Platform for Inland Waterways:

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

 

EN 13480

Stresses calculation depends on options:

If option "Consider Corrosion" is switched off, then corrosion allowance and mill tolerance doesn't affect stresses in this code.

If option "Consider Corrosion" is switched on then during sustained and expansion stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is reduced by corrosion allowance.

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Property

Description

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl, Sl*

If "add axial force and torsion stress" off (Sl):

Occasional:

If "add axial force and torsion stress" on (Sl*):

  

A - cross-section area, F - axial force, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sustained:

Occasional:

k - occasional k-factor

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se, Se*

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

If "add axial force and torsion stress" off (Se):

If "add axial force and torsion stress" on (Se*):

Allowable stress range, Sa, Sa*

 

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl, Sl*

The same as stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl, Sl*

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Creep stress from sustained and displacement loads in operating mode

See expansion stresses

Allowable stress

 

EN 13941

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Property

Description

Force controlled action LC2

Membrane Stress A1

Allowable stress

Force controlled action LC2

Membrane+Bending Stress A1

Allowable stress

gm is specified in pipe properties

Stepwise plastic deformation LC3

Force+deformation stress A2

Allowable stress

Low cycle fatigue
Force+deformation stress B1

Allowable stress

ni - specified in temperature cycles and multiplied by service life from project settings.

Equivalent number of full cycles should not be lower that lowest number of full cycles Nmin, that is specified in project settings and depending on pipeline type, that is specified in pipe properties. Project class is specified in pipe properties.

 

ISO 14692:2002

You can move the mouse over every table cell and see detailed report with equations and values used while calculating the result shown the cell. It will work if "show equations" option is checked.

Full failure envelope

1 – real short-term failure envelope, 2 – idealized short-term failure envelope, 3 – idealized long-term failure envelope, 4 – non-factored design failure envelope, 5 – factored design long-term failure envelope

Simplified failure envelope

1 – real short-term failure envelope, 2 – idealized short-term failure envelope, 3 – idealized long-term failure envelope, 4 – non-factored design failure envelope, 5 – factored design long-term failure envelope

Simplified failure envelope for fittings and joints at r=1

1 – stress to pressure correlation line (2:1), 3 – idealized long-term failure envelope, 4 – non-factored design failure envelope, 5 – factored design long-term failure envelope

Simplified failure envelope for fittings and joints at r>1

1 – stress to pressure correlation line (2:1), 3 – idealized long-term failure curve, 4 – non-factored design failure curve, 5 – factored design long-term failure curve

 

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Property

Description

Stress from weight loads Sheff

Equivalent hoop stress from weight loads

Allowable from weight loads [Sh]

 

For pipes , for fittings . Factor taken as 0.67, factor at operation temperature

Stress from weight loads Saeff

 

Equivalent axial stress from weight loads

Allowable from weight loads [Sa]

Factor taken as 0.67, factor at operation temperature

For pipes when using full failure envelope:

 

if

 

if

 

For pipes when using simplified failure envelope:

For fittings at r≤1:

For fittings at r>1:

Stress from all loads in operating mode Sheff

Analogous calculation, but from all loads in operating mode

Allowable from all loads in operating mode [Sh]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at operation temperature

Stress from all loads in operating mode Saeff

Analogous calculation, but from all loads in operating mode

Allowable from all loads in operation state [Sa]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at operation temperature

Stress from all loads in cold mode Sheff

Analogous calculation, but from all loads in cold mode

Allowable from all loads in cold mode [Sh]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at Ambient temperature

Stress from all loads in cold mode Saeff

Analogous calculation, but from all loads in cold mode

Allowable from all loads in cold mode [Sa]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at Ambient temperature

Stress from all loads in test state Sheff

Analogous calculation, but for test state

Allowable from all loads in test state [Sh]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at test temperature

Stress from all loads in test state Saeff

Analogous calculation, but for test state

Allowable from all loads in test state [Sa]

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at test temperature

 

ISO 14692: 2017

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Property

Description

Stress from weight loads

Factor taken as 0.67, factor at operation temperature

- ring buckling stress calculated using finite element procedure

For pipes when using full failure envelope:

For pipes when using simplified failure envelope:

Stress from all loads in operating mode

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at operation temperature

Stress from all loads in cold mode

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at Ambient temperature

Stress from all loads in test state

Analogous calculation, but factor taken as 0.83, factor at test temperature

 

ASME B31.12IP

Stresses calculation depends on options:

During sustained stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is not reduced.

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Property

Description

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Occasional stress:

A - cross-section area, F - axial force, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sustained:

Occasional:

k - occasional k-factor

Sh - hot allowable stress from material database

Mf - Performance factor from pipe properties

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

Allowable stress range, Sa

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

The same as stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

 

ASME B31.12PL

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance doesn't affect stresses in this code for all types of pipelines except risers.

For risers during stress calculation, the crossection area A and modulus of resistance Z wall thickness is reduced by corrosion allowance and mill tolerance.

Sustained, Operation, Expansion, Test stresses:

Start smart check:

Stresses from occasional loads:

Start smart check from occasional loads:

 

Button

Property

Description

 

Hoop Stress

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Restrained:

Not checked

Unrestrained:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

From occasional force-based loads:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

A - cross-section area, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

L1 - sustained loads (W+P), L6 - operational loads (W+P+T), L11 - operational loads + occasional force-based loads (W+P+T+OCC)

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress due to operation loads, Sl

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

Not checked

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress range from between operation and (installation/cold) state, Se

Stress range calculated between operation and installation mode. If option "stress range from operation to cold" is on, then between operation and cold mode.

Allowable stress range, Sa

N - number of full cycles. Calculated by:

Information for calculation is got from temperature cycles

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Start Smart Check:

F - axial force with Bourdon effect

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Restrained:

Unrestrained:

 

BS PD 8010-1,2

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Corrosion allowance and mill tolerance doesn't affect stresses in this code for all types of pipelines except risers.

Sustained, Operation, Expansion, Test stresses:

Start smart check:

 

Button

Property

Description

 

Hoop Stress

Onshore:

Offshore:

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline (BS PD 8010-1):

Restrained:

Not checked

Unrestrained:

Start Smart Check:

Offshore (BS PD 8010-2):

A - cross-section area, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Onshore Pipeline:

Offshore

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress due to operation loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

Same as sustained

Start Smart Check:

Same as sustained

Offshore:

Same as for sustained loads

Allowable stress from sustained or occasional loads

Onshore Pipeline:

Offshore

Sy - Yield Stress from material database

Stress due to sustained in test state, Sl

Same as sustained

Allowable stress from sustained loads in test state

Same as sustained, but

 

CSA Z662

Stresses calculation depends on options:

Sustained, Operation, Expansion:

Start smart check:

 

Button

Property

Description

 

Hoop Stress

Stress due to sustained or occasional loads, Sl

Allowable stress

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

Not checked

Unrestrained:

Start Smart Check:

Offshore (Ch.11):

A - cross-section area, Mi - in-plane moment, Mo - out-plane moment, Mt - torsion moment, Z - moment of resistance

Stress due to operation loads, Sl

Onshore Pipeline:

Restrained:

F - axial force without Bourdon effect

Unrestrained:

Same as sustained

Start Smart Check:

Same as sustained

Offshore:

Same as for sustained loads

 

Stress from thermal expansions, weight, and seismic wave propagation effect

Two checks are performed.

First check:

Second check:

F - Axial force thermal expansions, pressure Bourdon effect, weight, and seismic wave propagation effect

E - Elastic modulus

t - Pipe wall thickness

D - Pipe outside diameter

 

RD 10-249-98 Section 5.1 and 5.2

Bend stress intensification and flexibility factors calculated using equations:

Button

Property

Description

Equivalent stress from weight loads

Equivalent stress from weight loads (first stage of analysis)

Allowable stress from weight loads

Equivalent stress from all loads in operating mode

Equivalent stress from all loads in operating mode (second stage of analysis)

In accordance with RD 10-249-98, section 5.2 for low-temperature pipelines, stress in operation and cold mode from all loads is not calculated or assessed.

Allowable stress for all loads in operating mode

. In cases when, in accordance with standards, stress is not checked: "No"

Equivalent stress from all loads in cold mode

Equivalent stress from all loads in cold mode (fourth stage of analysis)

In accordance with RD 10-249-98, section 5.2 for low-temperature pipelines, stress in operation and cold mode from all loads is not calculated or assessed.

Allowable stress for all loads in cold mode

In cases when, in accordance with standards, stress is not checked: "No"

Fatigue fracture factor

For analyses based on section 5.1 (fatigue strength analysis) total fatigue fracture factor (third stage of analysis) is equal to

Design stress amplitude

Design stress amplitude (p. 5.2.7.3).

In accordance with RD 10-249-98, section 5.2 for high-temperature pipelines, fatigue strength analysis is not done, so fatigue fracture factor is not calculated

Allowable stress amplitude

Allowable stress amplitude (p. 5.2.7.3). The design number of cycles couldn't be less than 3000.

In accordance with RD 10-249-98, section 5.2 for high-temperature pipelines, fatigue strength analysis is not done, so fatigue fracture factor is not calculated

[σ]op - allowable stress at operation temperature Top, [σ]20 - allowable stress at normal temperature

GOST R 55596-2013 and GOST 32388-2013

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Property

Description

Equivalent stress from weight loads

Equivalent stress from weight loads (first stage of analysis)

Allowable stress from weight loads

1.1[σ]op

Equivalent stress from all loads in operating mode

Equivalent stress from all loads in operating mode (second stage of analysis)

Meeting strength conditions from all loads in operation and cold (if there is pre-stretch) state, required only for pipes and not required for bends and tees (stub-ins)

Allowable stress for all loads in operating mode

1.5[σ]op

For low temperature piping bends, tees and reducers is not checked ( "No" )

Equivalent stress from all loads in cold mode

Equivalent stress from all loads in cold mode (third stage of analysis)

Meeting strength conditions from all loads in operation and cold (if there is pre-stretch) state, required only for pipes and not required for bends and tees (stub-ins)

Allowable stress for all loads in cold mode

1.5[σ]20.

For low temperature piping bends, tees and reducers is not checked ( "No" )

Equivalent stress from weight loads in test state

Equivalent stress from weight loads in test state

Allowable stress from weight loads in test state

1.5[σ]test

For tees, bends and reducers 1.5([σ]20+[σ]test)

Stress range from hot to cold mode

Stress range from hot to cold mode

Allowable stress range

Minimum of the two values

1.5([σ]20+[σ]op)

and

[σ]op - allowable stress at operation temperature Top, [σ]20 - allowable stress at normal temperature

Thermoplastic Piping (HDPE, PVC, etc.)

Please refer to Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis

SNIP 2.05.06-85 / SP 36.13330.2012 / SP 33.13330.2012

Stress table for SNIP 2.05.06-85 looks like this:

 

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Property

Description

Hoop stress, design and allowable

For any pipelines, section 8.22 formula (12), section 8.63 formula (59) SNIP 2.05.06-85:

;  

Hoop stress, operation and allowable

For buried pipelines, condition section 8.26 formula (30) SNIP 2.05.06-85 is used:

Longitudinal axial stress, design and allowable  

section 8.24 formula (15) SNIP 2.05.06-85:

,

N - force from the analysis of design loads taking into account load safety factors and pressure thrust force

Longitudinal fiber stress (calculated)

Maximum fiber equivalent stress in cross-section edge fibers, calculated separately for compressed and stretched cross-section areas, followed by calculating the maximum value

  • For above-ground pipes (section 8.34 formula (42) taking into account note 1 section 8.35 SNIP 2.05.06-85), the following condition is used:

Longitudinal stress is calculated based on conditions determined by design load analysis (taking into account load safety factors)

Longitudinal stress is calculated based on conditions determined by standard load analysis (without taking into account load safety factors)

where - maximum standard equivalent stress, calculated by special methods taking into account bend and tee dimensions. Stress is calculated based on conditions determined by standard load analysis (without taking into account load safety factors)

  • For bends, there is no information in SNIP 2.05.06-85. The same formula as for tees is used - section 8.64* formula (62)*:

Design resistance R1

Design resistance for tensile strength

Design resistance R2

Design resistance for yield strength

- for above-ground pipelines, - for buried pipelines, - for tees and bends

Notes

No.

Note

Code

Description

N218

Temperature range exceeds limit

SNIP 2.05.06-85 / SP 36.13330.2012

Strength condition not met:

N219

Insufficient wall thickness

SNIP 2.05.06-85 / SP 36.13330.2012

Strength condition not met: ,

N221

Structure does not meet strength conditions

SNIP 2.05.06-85 / SP 36.13330.2012

One of strength conditions not met:  , ,

N265

Failed stress check from pressure and weight loads

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

N268

Failed the stress check in operation condition

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

N269

Failed the stress check in cold condition

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

N284

Failed the fatigue strength check

All others

Fatigue failure condition not met S > Sallowable

N676

Failed wall buckling check in test condition

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

N677

Failed wall buckling check in operation condition

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

N678

Failed wall buckling check in cold condition

All others

Strength condition not met: S > Sallowable

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After analysis: Output > Piping Stress